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Surgical indications for pituitary tumors during pregnancy: a literature review

Abstract : Purpose: Surgical indications for pituitary tumors during pregnancy are rare, and are derived from a balance between expected benefits, particularly for maternal benefits, and anesthetic/surgical risks. Methods: A literature review was performed to define the optimal surgical indications for pituitary adenomas (PA) and other pituitary tumors during pregnancy. Results: Main benefits are expected in case of critical visual impairment and/or life-threatening endocrine disturbances. Multidisciplinary patient management is systematically required although nonobstetric surgery presents a reasonable risk during pregnancy. The risks of congenital malformation during the first trimester and those of premature birth during the third trimester make the second trimester the optimal period for surgery. In prolactin-secreting, nonsecreting, GH- and TSH-secreting PAs, transsphenoidal surgery (TS) is recommended in cases involving severe visual impairment, characterized by severe visual field deficit, visual acuity impairment, and abnormal optical coherence tomography findings, and when no other medical alternatives are possible and/or sufficient. Uncontrolled and severe Cushing’s disease (CD) during pregnancy increases both maternal and fetal morbimortality, thus justifying TS or sometimes dopamine agonist therapy as a safer alternative. Finally, metyrapone, ketoconazole, or bilateral adrenalectomy could be recommended in certain cases after the failure of medical therapies and/or TS. Surgery is also required for suprasellar meningiomas, craniopharyngiomas, and pituitary cysts in the case of severe visual deficit. Conclusion: Surgical indications for pituitary tumors are rare during pregnancy; therefore, surgery should be avoided when possible. Further, the second trimester should be considered as the optimal surgical period. Severe visual disturbance and uncontrolled CD are the main surgical indications during pregnancy.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02468520
Contributor : Virginie Tassistro <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, May 12, 2021 - 3:58:36 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 15, 2021 - 5:04:03 PM

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Thomas Graillon, Thomas Cuny, Frederic Castinetti, Blandine Courbiere, Marie Cousin, et al.. Surgical indications for pituitary tumors during pregnancy: a literature review. Pituitary, Springer Verlag, 2020, 23 (2), pp.189-199. ⟨10.1007/s11102-019-01004-3⟩. ⟨hal-02468520⟩

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